Based on the Summary on ‘Ibadat according to the School of Imam Malik by
Sayyidi ‘Abdu’r-Rahman al-Akhdari
I. The Primary Obligations of a Muslim
1. To have sound faith.
2. To know how to properly carry out individual obligations, like the judgements regarding the prayer, purification and fasting.
3. To observe the limits (hudud) imposed by Allah, and hold to His commands and prohibitions and turn in repentance to Allah All-Glorious before He becomes angry.
The preconditions for repentance are:
1. Regret for what you did.
2. The intention not to revert to the wrong action for the rest of your life.
3. To stop the act of disobedience immediately if one is actually doing it. It is not lawful for him to put off repentance or say, “I will repent when Allah guides me.”That is a sign of misery, abandonment by Allah and lack of insight.
4. To guard the tongue against obscene language and ugly words, and swearing by divorce (e.g. “If I do not, I will divorce my wife”)
5. To avoid putting down another Muslim, treating him with contempt, cursing him, or frightening him without a legitimate reason.
6. To guard his eyes against looking at what is unlawful. It is not lawful for him look at a Muslim with a glance which hurts him unless he is impious in which case he should shun him.
7. He must preserve all of his limbs as much as possible from blameworthy actions.
8. He must love for Allah and hate for Him, and be pleased for Him and angry for Him, and he must command the correct and forbid the objectionable.
1. It is unlawful for him to lie, to slander, carry tales, be arrogant, be proud, show off for the sake of appearance and reputation, to envy, to hate, to see one oneself as better than others, to fault find, to backbite, to mock, or to ridicule.
2. It is unlawful to commit fornication or to look with lust at a woman to him he is not married and take pleasure in her words; or to consume the property of people without their consent; or to receive money in exchange for intercession or because of a debt; or delaying the prayer until its time has past.
3. It is not lawful for him to keep the company of a deviant (fasiq ) or to sit with him without necessity.
4. He should not seek to please creatures at the price of the incurring the anger of the Creator. Allah Almighty says, “It would be more fitting for them to please Allah and His Messenger if they are believers.”(9:62) The Prophet, peace be upon him said, “There is no obedience owed to a creature when it involves disobedience of the Creator.”
5. It is not lawful for him to do an action until he knows what Allah’s judgement is in it. He should ask the people of knowledge and imitate those whose who follow the Sunna of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who direct people to how to obey Allah and warn against following Shaytan.
6. He should not be content to allow himself to do what the spiritually bankrupt are content to do – those who waste their lives obeying other than Allah Almighty. What regret they will suffer! How long they will weep on the Day of Resurrection!
We ask Allah Almighty to give us success in following the Sunna of our Prophet, intercessor and master, Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.